Section through an octopus shows the mouth passing through the brain

Anatomy To You

Paraoctopus

Octopuses and other cephalopods are well-known for their exceptional intelligence and complex brains, which appear to outstrip all other invertbrates. But, they work within one strange constraint – like all other molluscs (snails, slugs, oysters and more), the nerve ring at the centre of their nervous system encircles the oesophagus. In cephalopods it is this nerve ring which has become enlarged and organised to form their advanced brain, meaning that everything they eat must pass through the brain. One would think this exposes the animals to significant risk of brain injury in the case they ingested something large or awkward. But cephalopods have a bird-like beak which crushes food into manageable pieces and minimises this risk. This section through a young octopus shows the bulbous, stripey-looking brain between the two advanced camera eyes, surrounding part of the oesophagus (small white centre towards the base of the eyes). Also visible are two…

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